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Ginkgo To Sharpen Memory But Bad For Blood Pressure?

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Ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Dubei В» 17.03.2020

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Accumulating evidence suggests that ginkgo biloba is cardioprotective, in part, through its vasodilatory and antihypertensive properties. However, definitive data on its blood pressure-lowering effects in humans is lacking. We also examined whether the treatment effects are modified by baseline hypertension status. Over a median follow-up of 6.

Although baseline hypertension status did not modify the antihypertensive effects of ginkgo biloba , it did influence the changes in blood pressure variables observed during follow-up, with decreases in hypertensives, increases in normotensives, and no changes in pre-hypertensives. The rate of incident hypertension also did not differ between participants assigned to ginkgo biloba vs.

Our data indicate that ginkgo biloba does not reduce blood pressure or the incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal dietary supplement commonly used for the treatment and prevention of aging-related cognitive decline and dementia.

Few studies have investigated the effects of ginkgo biloba on BP in humans. Two small studies in young, normotensive subjects showed no change in BP after 1 to 6 weeks of gingko biloba.

Taken together, these findings emphasize the need for a large, randomized controlled trial that can address the effects of ginkgo biloba on BP in humans. The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory GEM study provides a unique opportunity to examine this relationship in elderly community-dwelling adults. In the present analysis we hypothesized that participants randomized to the treatment arm would have greater reductions in BP and pulse pressure PP than participants randomized to placebo.

Based on previous studies in rats and humans, we also hypothesized that these BP-lowering effects would be influenced by the baseline hypertension status. Individuals were excluded if they were demented or taking warfarin, antipsychotic medications, or cholinesterase inhibitors. Additional exclusions included a history of bleeding disorders, cancer within the past 5 years, congestive heart failure with disability, untreated depression, hospitalization for depression in the past year, and Parkinson's disease.

All sites obtained approval from their institutional review boards. Signed informed consent was obtained from GEM study participants and their respective proxies. Participants were randomized to either mg of ginkgo biloba extract EGb ; Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karsruhe, Germany or an identically appearing placebo twice a day.

The composition of the active and placebo tablets was confirmed by independent laboratory testing. All participants and clinical personnel were blinded to the treatment assignment. Only the study pharmacist who allocated the treatments into batches and the coordinating center personnel who reported to the study Data and Safety Monitoring Board knew which pills were active; however, they were unaware of participant information.

The primary outcomes were systolic and diastolic BP, PP, and incident hypertension. BP was measured in the right arm using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer W. Baum Company, Inc. The 1 st -phase and 5 th -phase Korotkoff sounds were used to identify systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The average of 2 measurements was used in the analysis. PP was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic BP.

The use of antihypertensive medications was assessed at the baseline visit where participants were instructed to bring in all prescription drugs taken in the previous 2 weeks. A trained interviewer entered the name of the drug, dose, and frequency of use in a medications computer system.

The following demographic and health characteristics were assessed at baseline: age, race, sex, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity based on the question: Do you walk for exercise or pleasure? Body mass index BMI was calculated from anthropometric measurements as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Analyses were conducted using an intention-to-treat approach in which participants were kept in their randomly assigned groups regardless of their drug compliance.

BP analyses were done in the entire study population and stratified by baseline hypertension status. Analysis of variance and chi-square frequency tests were used to compare differences in continuous and categorical variables, respectively, between normotensives, pre-hypertensives, and hypertensives.

Mixed models regression was used to determine the association of changes in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and PP with treatment assignment using all available BP measurements on every participant who came in for a clinic visit. If BP data was not available, the missing values were imputed. Three-way interactions of treatment group x time x gender, race, baseline antihypertensive medication use, and baseline hypertension status were tested in the overall group.

In these same models, tests of the two-way interactions between the above factors and time were also examined. Adjusted analyses were performed to account for baseline risk factors associated with changes in BP over time, including initial BP, age, gender, race, education, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, heart rate, BMI, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and antihypertensive medication use. Clinical site was forced into the model to control for potential variations in study population between sites.

Models with antihypertensive medication use entered as a time-dependent covariate were also explored. To account for the significant effect of baseline medication use on changes in BP variables over time, we performed a secondary analysis excluding participants who were on antihypertensive medications at baseline.

The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute hazard ratios HR for the association between treatment group and incident hypertension. For this analysis, all participants who were hypertensive or on antihypertensive medications at baseline were excluded. Additional Cox regression models were done adjusting for the baseline covariates mentioned above. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of the study population overall and stratified by baseline hypertension status.

Hypertensive individuals were more likely to be older, female, and less educated. They also had a higher prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a lower heart rate, and a higher BMI. Race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were similar among normotensives, pre-hypertensives, and hypertensives. As reported previously, baseline characteristics did not differ between treatment groups with respect to age, gender, race, education, smoking status, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, BP, or BMI.

Baseline characteristics of study participants overall and by baseline hypertension status. Table 2 shows the unadjusted mean annual changes in systolic BP and PP by treatment group overall and stratified by baseline hypertension status.

We first analyzed all study participants, combining both users and non-users of antihypertensive medications at baseline. Annual changes in systolic BP and PP by treatment group overall and stratified by baseline hypertension status, in all participants and in those who were not on antihypertensive medications at baseline. We also investigated the changes in BP when stratified by baseline hypertension status Table 2.

As shown in Table 2 , the overall and stratified results were similar when analyses were limited to only those individuals who were non-users of antihypertensive medications at baseline. Adjustment for baseline risk factors did not significantly change the results data not shown. These findings were also similar when antihypertensive medication use was included as a time-dependent covariate.

In logistic regression analyses, we examined the association between treatment group and antihypertensive medication use over time among participants who were non-users at baseline. There were 83 participants who reported being non-users at all 13 follow-up visits i.

Of those, 47 participants were in the placebo group 3. Adjustment for baseline hypertension status had minimal effects. A similar HR was found after multivariable adjustment HR, 1.

These results were virtually identical whether a 5- or mmHg increase in BP was used. Additionally, we examined whether treatment group was associated with discontinuation of antihypertensive medications. Among hypertensives that were on medications at baseline, 2. We examined the antihypertensive effects of ginkgo biloba in elderly men and women from the GEM study. The major finding of this analysis was that ginkgo biloba had no effect on BP or PP in this population.

We found similar reductions in systolic and diastolic BP and PP in the ginkgo biloba and placebo groups. Baseline hypertension status did not modify the antihypertensive effects of ginkgo biloba; however, it did influence the changes in BP observed during follow-up.

Hypertensives had significant reductions in all three BP variables, while normotensives had significant increases in systolic BP and PP. On the other hand, BP and PP remained fairly stable in pre-hypertensives. These findings are consistent with regression to the mean and were unchanged even after excluding participants on antihypertensive medications at baseline or adjusting for changes in medication use over time.

We also found no evidence that ginkgo biloba reduces the incidence of hypertension. Surprisingly, there are only a few studies that have investigated the potential antihypertensive properties of ginkgo biloba in humans. Kalus et al. However, the lack of a significant change in BP among those with pre-hypertension precludes observing any differences due to treatment. To our knowledge, no other studies have reported the effects of long-term ginkgo biloba supplementation on BP in hypertensive individuals or in an older population.

Nevertheless, other beneficial effects on the vasculature have been reported after acute and chronic gingko biloba intake in humans, including increases in coronary, ocular, and forearm blood flow, improvements in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and reductions in peripheral vascular resistance. It should be noted that the age of the GEM study population could be a factor contributing to the lack of significant findings.

Most of the rat studies showing a significant BP-lowering effect of ginkgo biloba were conducted in young hypertensive rats i. However, one study found that 4 weeks of gingko biloba was unable to attenuate the rise in BP or PP in 50 week-old hypertensive rats. Indeed, it is possible that the antihypertensive effects of ginkgo biloba may not be evident in elderly persons, particularly those with prolonged exposure to high BP. Moreover, a recent analysis in the REASON study demonstrated that among individuals with uncomplicated hypertension, those with the highest aortic stiffness had the smallest BP reduction in response to treatmenet.

It is possible that increased aortic stiffness may also reduce the antihypertensive effects of ginkgo biloba. In our study population, the mean PP was 64 mmHg, suggesting that our participants potentially had increased aortic stiffness as well. Taken together, it seems plausible that age-related changes in the vasculature may affect the ability of ginkgo biloba to lower BP in elderly individuals. There were a few limitations in this study. The study population included a select cohort of elderly adults at increased risk for dementia; thus, our results may have limited generalizability.

Also, we could not fully control for the effect of antihypertensive medications. Thus, it is possible that the effects of these medications washed out any potential effect of ginkgo biloba. Moreover, there is some indication that ginkgo biloba may interact with specific classes of antihypertensive medications to alter their pharmacological effects.

There was also no data collected on self-reported hypertension during follow-up. Thus, in our definition of incident hypertension, we could not account for confounding by indication. As such, we may have included participants who were not hypertensive, thereby diluting our ability to find an association with treatment. Nevertheless, these medications affect BP whether prescribed for that purpose or not, and our results were unchanged even after adjusting for medication use over time.

These limitations notwithstanding, this is the first and largest controlled, randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of ginkgo biloba on BP.

In addition, a commonly-prescribed dose and a standardized formulation of ginkgo biloba extract were used in this study.

3,000 YEAR OLD MIRACLE HERB FOR DIABETES, CLOGGED ARTERIES & HEART - Dr Alan Mandelll, DC, time: 5:06
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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Goltim В» 17.03.2020

How to Take it. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take ginkgo. Topic Overview What is ginkgo biloba?

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Yolkree В» 17.03.2020

On the contrary, average night BP decreased by 6. Some studies suggest that ginkgo may help preserve vision in those with AMD. Can Support Vision and Eye Health. Statistical Analyses Analyses were conducted using an intention-to-treat approach in which participants were kept in their randomly assigned groups regardless of their drug compliance. Author: Healthwise Click here.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Zulkilabar В» 17.03.2020

For most adults, the risk associated with taking ginkgo is relatively low, but there are cases in which ginkgo could cause serious harm. The role ginmgo diet in migraines is controversial, but studies suggest that what you eat may affect their frequency. It is also one of the best-selling here supplements in the United States and Europe. Speed and high blood pressure.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Daran В» 17.03.2020

I have high blood pressure despite a healthy life I'm gaining weight, have just come off the Pill and have high blood pressure. It may not be safe to forgo your conventional medical treatment and rely only on a dietary supplement. Can Reduce Anxiety.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Taucage В» 17.03.2020

The average of 2 measurements was used in the ello bottle walmart. This is attributed to the anti-inflammatory compounds in ginkgo, which may allow for reduced inflammation of the airways and increased lung capacity Ihl R. For bllod reasons, ginkgo may improve vein and eye health. There is some speculation that ginkgo may enhance brain function in healthy individuals.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Fenrigul В» 17.03.2020

Study Intervention Participants were randomized to either mg of ginkgo biloba extract EGb ; Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karsruhe, Germany or an identically appearing placebo twice a day. Ginkgo biloba Also prewsure as:. Eur J Neurol. However, definitive data on its blood pressure-lowering effects in humans is lacking. The way dietary supplements are manufactured may not be standardized.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Nikogor В» 17.03.2020

Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Thus, it is possible that the effects of these medications washed out any potential effect of ginkgo biloba. A single tree can live as long as 1, years and grow to a height of feet.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Mauk В» 17.03.2020

People with generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder ptessure took uigh specific extract had fewer anxiety symptoms than those who took placebo. A review of animal studies suggests that see more with ginkgo may help treat symptoms of depression Ginkgo is widely used in Europe for treating dementia. Although the benefits of ginkgo are not entirely understood, it is known that ginkgo has properties that may help treat certain conditions. Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Mazujind В» 17.03.2020

Ginkgo usually has few side effects. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Odds Ratio. Pharmacological management of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.

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Re: ginkgo high blood pressure

Postby Dailkis В» 17.03.2020

While its leaves and seeds are often used in traditional Chinese medicine, modern research primarily focuses on ginkgo extract, which is made from presure leaves. Improve check this out in people with memory impairment. If you can read this, please don't http://corminape.tk/mp3/kamalamba-navavarna-krithis-mp3-download.php out these form fields. These positive results could be related to the role that ginkgo may play in improving blood flow to the brain, especially as it relates to vascular types of dementia.

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